General 1. Which statement is true concerning strangulation obstruction of the small intestine?
a. Motility ceases since the muscularis mucosa is the most sensitive region to hypoxia.
b. Epithelial sloughing initially involves the crypt cells and progresses towards the villus tip.
c. The counter-current circulation allows the villus tip to remain oxygenated despite hypoxic conditions.
d. Further intestinal degeneration after correction of the lesion is related to lipid peroxidation.
General 2. Which statement pertaining to esophageal function is correct?
a. By definition, true peristaltic contractions are elicited only by the presence of a food bolus.
b. Secondary peristalsis refers to the anti-peristaltic movement noted during regurgitation.
c. Primary peristalsis is essential for secondary peristalsis to occur.
d. Secondary peristalsis is elicited by the presence of a foreign body or food bolus.
General 3. Which statement about intravenous anesthetic agents is incorrect?
a. Duration of action of ultrashort-acting barbiturates is primarily dependent upon redistribution to lean body tissues.
b. Glycerol guaiacolate produces relaxation of skeletal muscles, laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles, and the diaphragm.
c. Ketamine hydrochloride produces apneustic breathing and tachycardia.
d. Chloral hydrate produces significant sedation and respiratory depression, but poor analgesia.
Large Animal 1. Which statement regarding serum tumor necrosis factor activity in horses with gastrointestinal disease is correct?
a. Tumor necrosis factor is synthesized primarily by vascular endothelial cells in response to exposure to endotoxin.
b. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor activity are highest in horses over 15 years of age.
c. Serum tumor necrosis factor activity is greatest in horses with inflammatory disorders or strangulation obstruction.
d. There is no apparent correlation between serum tumor necrosis factor activity and mortality.
Large Animal 2. Abdominal adhesions following exploratory celiotomy for a small intestinal lesion may result in clinical problems requiring additional surgery or euthanasia. Which statement regarding the outcome of these patients is correct?
a. There is a significantly greater chance of adhesion development following resection anastomosis versus simple correction.
b. Approximately 50% of patients will develop complications associated with adhesions following abdominal surgery. Most of these will become evident within 2 weeks following surgery.
c. Survival following diagnosis of abdominal adhesions may be estimated at approximately 50%.
d. Approximately 20% of patients will develop complications associated with adhesions following abdominal surgery. Most of these will become clinically evident within 2 months following surgery.
Large Animal 3. During routine carpal arthroscopy in a horse, the mean arterial blood pressure in the patient falls below 60 mm Hg. Which treatment strategy is not useful in the management of hypotension in this case?
a. Administration of calcium
b. Initiating positive pressure ventilation
c. Decreasing anesthetic depth is one of the first steps
d. Increasing the administration of a balanced electrolyte solution
Large Animal 4. Chemical substances play an important role in provoking airway hyperresponsiveness in horses with "heaves". Which substance has not been implicated as provoking airway hyperresponsiveness?
c. Leukotriene B4
d. Tumor necrosis factor
Small Animal 1. For which canine prostatic disease is castration of no known value?
a. Chronic recurrent bacterial prostatitis
b. Benign prostatic hyperplasia
c. Acute bacterial prostatitis
d. Prostatic adenocarcinoma
Small Animal 2. Which of the following techniques is the most appropriate method for durable skin closure of a 180 degree circumferential cutaneous defect involving the metatarsal surface in a golden retriever?
a. Deep circumflex iliac axial pattern flap, ventral branch
b. Reverse saphenous conduit flap
c. Caudal superficial epigastric axial pattern flap
d. Genicular axial pattern flap
Small Animal 3. Which statement with regard to morphine epidurals L7-S1 in dogs is true?
a. Morphine epidurals do not change the MAC (mean alveolar concentration) of halothane.
b. The duration of action of morphine epidurals is 4-6 hours.
c. Naxalone reverses side effects such a pruritus, as well as the analgesia of morphine epidurals.
d. Morphine epidurals are efficacious for thoracotomies and forelimb procedures.
Small Animal 4. Comparison of chlorhexidine diacetate (CHD) and povidone-iodine (PI) for skin preparation in dogs indicates that:
a. although CHD and PI are equally likely to be inactivated by organic debris, postoperative infection rates are higher with PI.
b. although PI is less likely to be inactivated by organic debris, postoperative infection rates are similar to CHD.
c. although CHD is less likely to be inactivated by organic debris, postoperative infection rates are higher with CHD.
d. although CHD is less likely to be inactivated by organic debris, postoperative infection rates are similar to PI.